VMF – Volatile Matter Furnaces


  • VMF / ASTM for testing to ASTM D3175-11
  • VMF / ASTM complete with crucible, lid and holder
  • VMF 10/6 for testing to ISO 562:2010
  • VMF 10/6 parallel opening door
  • VMF 10/6 calibration ports to enable unsheathed

thermocouple to be positioned below each crucible



Volatile matter in coal, ie, the matter given off before oxidation, refers to the volatile components of coal, except moisture, which are removed at high temperature in the absence of air. This is usually a mixture of short and long chain hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and some sulphur.

Volatile matter is determined as the loss in mass, less that due to moisture, when coal or coke is heated out of contact with air under standardised conditions. The test is empirical and, in order to ensure reproducible results, it is essential that the rate of heating, the final temperature and the overall duration of the test be carefully controlled. It is also essential to exclude air from the coal or coke during heating to prevent oxidisation. The fit of the crucible lid is, therefore, critical. The moisture content of the sample must be determined at the same time as the volatile matter so that the appropriate correction can be made. The Carbolite Gero VMF furnaces are specifically designed for testing the volatile matter of coal and meet the test methods of International Standards:


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